German invasion of Poland, September 1st, 1939
"At 4:45 a.m., some 1.5 million German troops invade Poland all along its 1,750-mile border with German-controlled territory. Simultaneously, the German Luftwaffe bombed Polish airfields, and German warships and U-boats attacked Polish naval forces in the Baltic Sea. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler claimed the massive invasion was a defensive action, but Britain and France were not convinced. On September 3, they declared war on Germany, initiating World War II.
To Hitler, the conquest of Poland would bring Lebensraum, or ‘living space,’ for the German people. According to his plan, the ‘racially superior’ Germans would colonize the territory and the native Slavs would be enslaved. German expansion had begun in 1938 with the annexation of Austria and then continued with the occupation of the Sudetenland and then all of Czechoslovakia in 1939. Both had been accomplished without igniting hostilities with the major powers, and Hitler hoped that his invasion of Poland would likewise be tolerated.
To neutralize the possibility that the USSR would come to Poland’s aid, Germany signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union on August 23, 1939. In a secret clause of the agreement, the ideological enemies agreed to divide Poland between them. Hitler gave orders for the Poland invasion to begin on August 26, but on August 25 he delayed the attack when he learned that Britain had signed a new treaty with Poland, promising military support should it be attacked. To forestall a British intervention, Hitler turned to propaganda and misinformation, alleging persecution of German-speakers in eastern Poland. Fearing imminent attack, Poland began to call up its troops, but Britain and France persuaded Poland to postpone general mobilization until August 31 in a last ditch effort to dissuade Germany from war.
Shortly after noon on August 31, Hitler ordered hostilities against Poland to begin at 4:45 a.m. the next morning. At 8 p.m. on August 31, Nazi S.S. troops wearing Polish uniforms staged a phony invasion of Germany, damaging several minor installations on the German side of the border. They also left behind a handful of dead concentration camp prisoners in Polish uniforms to serve as further evidence of the supposed Polish invasion, which Nazi propagandists publicized as an unforgivable act of aggression.
At 4:45 a.m. on September 1, the invasion began. Nazi diplomats and propagandists scrambled to head off hostilities with the Western powers, but on September 2 Britain and France demanded that Germany withdraw by September 3 or face war. At 11 p.m. on September 3, the British ultimatum expired, and 15 minutes later British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain went on national radio to solemnly announce that Britain was at war with Germany. Australia, New Zealand, and India followed suit shortly thereafter. At 5:00 p.m., France declared war on Germany.
In Poland, German forces advanced at a dizzying rate. Employing a military strategy known as the blitzkrieg, or ‘lightning war,’ armored divisions smashed through enemy lines and isolated segments of the enemy, which were encircled and captured by motorized German infantry while the panzer tanks rushed forward to repeat the pattern. Meanwhile, the sophisticated German air force—the Luftwaffe—destroyed Polish air capability, provided air support for the blitzkrieg, and indiscriminately bombed Polish cities in an effort to further terrorize the enemy.
The Polish army was able to mobilize one million men but was hopelessly outmatched in every respect. Rather than take a strong defensive position, troops were rushed to the front to confront the Germans and were systematically captured or annihilated. In a famously ill-fated strategy, Polish commanders even sent horsed cavalry into battle against the heavy German armor. By September 8, German forces had reached the outskirts of Warsaw, having advanced 140 miles in the first week of the invasion.
The Polish armed forces hoped to hold out long enough so that an offensive could be mounted against Germany in the west, but on September 17 Soviet forces invaded from the east and all hope was lost. The next day, Poland’s government and military leaders fled the country. On September 28, the Warsaw garrison finally surrendered to a relentless German siege. That day, Germany and the USSR concluded an agreement outlining their zones of occupation. For the fourth time in its history, Poland was partitioned by its more powerful neighbors.
Despite their declaration of war against Germany, Britain and France did little militarily to aid Poland. Britain bombed German warships on September 4, but Chamberlain resisted bombing Germany itself. Though Germans kept only 23 divisions in the west during their campaign in Poland, France did not launch a full-scale attack even though it had mobilized over four times that number. There were modest assaults by France on its border with Germany but these actions ceased with the defeat of Poland. During the subsequent seven months, some observers accused Britain and France of waging a ‘phony war,’ because, with the exception of a few dramatic British-German clashes at sea, no major military action was taken. However, hostilities escalated exponentially in 1940 with Germany’s April invasion of Norway and May invasion of the Low Countries and France.
In June 1941, Hitler attacked the USSR, breaking his nonaggression with the Soviet Union, and Germany seized all of Poland. During the German occupation, nearly three million Polish Jews were killed in the Nazi death camps. The Nazis also severely persecuted the Slavic majority, deporting and executing Poles in an attempt to destroy the intelligentsia and Polish culture. A large Polish resistance movement effectively fought against the occupation with the assistance of the Polish government-in-exile. Many exiled Poles also fought for the Allied cause. The Soviets completed the liberation of Poland in 1945 and established a communist government in the nation.” (source)
Haunting of Niedzica Castle: Biała Dama (The White Lady)
The castle is a place rich in tales and legends with some of the former residents resembling characters from gothic novels. In the post-World War II period Polish newspapers wrote at length about Sebastián Berzeviczy (one of Niedzica’s owners) who traveled to the New World in the 18th century. According to a popular legend, he fell in love with the alleged Inca princess. Their daughter Umina married the nephew of an Inca insurrection leader Túpac Amaru II, whose assumed name implied descent from Inca kings. Túpac Amaru was eventually executed by the Spaniards after rebelling against the colonial government. The legend goes on to claim that the sacred scrolls of the Incas had been handed down to his surviving family members. His nephew, Andrés Túpac Amaru a.k.a. Andreas with wife Umina and his father-in-law Sebastián Berzeviczy fled to Italy, where Andrés was killed in suspicious circumstances. Consequently, Umina with son and her father fled to [then] Hungary and settled at the castle. Sources claim that Umina was assassinated there some time later. Her ghost, The White Lady, is said to appear in the castle courtyard regularly, among howling winds. Her testament to son Anton, written in 1797 and stored there, allegedly contained information about the lost treasure of the Incas. There was a leaden case found at the castle with some “quipu” writings, but it was lost in Kraków in the following years. Later, news appeared about expeditions searching for fantastic treasures at Lake Titicaca in Peru. The notion that the Inca treasure map could be hidden somewhere in the depths of the castle is still cherished today. (source)
WWII on the front page: the world reacts to Germany’s invasion of Poland, September 1939
Germany | Völkischer Beobachter | September 2nd
Title: The German march continues to be successful on all fronts
Subtitle: Our war machines over Warsaw
Below: No German bombing of civilians
Holland| Algemeen Handelsblad | September 2nd
Title: French-British ultimatum: No answer from Berlin
Subtitle: There is no war: say Germany
Below: Warsaw hit with bombs yesterday
Italy| L’Osservatore Romano | September 2nd
Title: This morning a conflict erupted between Germany and Poland
Subtitle: What does the government in Berlin demand. Statements from Hitler and Mościcki. Reichstag’s declaration. Lack of calls for help from abroad. Ground fighting and bombing. Call for parliaments to mobilization.
Italy announces it will not take part in any military conflict.
France| La Croix | September 2nd
Title: Germany attacks Poland. France mobilizing its powers
Subtitle: House of Parliament called to meet - Exceptional circumstances in 89 French departments, in Belfort and Algeria
Below: Military action commenced throughout the German-Polish border. Warsaw and many other cities bombed.
Portugal| Jornal de Noticias | September 2nd Headline: European Drama
Title: Yesterday morning a military conflict began between Poland and Germany
Subtitle: German air force bombed several Polish cities, Warsaw and Gdynia. The Reich army attacked from three sides: Eastern Prussia, Silesia and Slovakia.
Romania| Timpul | September 2nd
Title: Military action has begun
Subtitle: Fighting along the Polish-German border. Mobilization in England and France.
Below: The German army will fight with utmost energy, proclaims Hitler
- The whole nation stands together to fight until victory, says Mościcki
Soviet Union | Izwiestia | September 1st
Title: The ratification of the Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact
Subtitle: Statement of comrade Molotov at the meeting of the Supreme Council of the USSR from August 31st, 1939
Great Britain | Daily Express | September 1st
Headline: German-Soviet pact is ratified.
Then, within 20 minutes Hitler drops a radio bombshell:
Title: ‘I consider my terms have been rejected’
Below: 16 points: return of Danzing at once
USA | Chicago Daily Tribune | September 1st
Title: Europe’s war is on
Subtitle: France and Britain mobilize to aid Poland. Italy wavers
Article below (on the left): Poles report attack by Nazi planes, troops
Article below (on the right): Germany takes Danzig, Navy blockades Gdynia (source)
I kicked a can in the parking lot today. There are stains from tobacco spit all down my leg and across my sock now. North Carolina is a fun place.
I just watched a kid break down in the bookstore because his books for the semester totaled $600 and that’s the american university system in a nutshell
I was on the verge of tears when I got to the cashier so yeah, that’s messed up
While I entirely support following that link, I also suggest going to Abe Books or Book Depository or even eBay to see if there are inexpensive print versions of books you need. I haven’t paid full-price for any of my texts while I’m in school… because that would DOUBLE the cost of school.
I use the ISBN of the require books and search the cheap sites for them.
Good luck out there, guys!
Paging FenrisLorsrai! Come work your resource magic on this post!
I HAVE BEEN SUMMONED. (but I’ll post on my actual bookstore account)
Quick anddirty meta search for books: Addall. it’ll crawl 40+ book sites at once including ABE, ALibris, Amazon, Half in both domestic AND foreign versions.
Meta search #2! GetTextbooks.com which focuses specifically on textbooks. It omits some foreign sites that AddAll includes, BUT it also includes a whole bunch of rentals as well. Renting is probably the most cost effective method overall.
NOW, HOW TO SEARCH!
First determine a few things:
- Make sure you have the ISBN
- IF IT IS A BUNDLE: Determine if you need a software key/CD/workbook/lab book or not. Many times you do not. Math classes increasingly NEED the software key, but more on that later
- ASK THE PROFESSOR: If this is not the first edition of the book, can you use a previous edition? One edition back is generally half the cost of current, two is generally about 1/8th the cost. Generally you can get away with this if its material that doesn’t change rapidly. Your course on the Civil War, you can probably use two editions back. Your computer programming class on latest greatest language… you probably need newest edition.
- FOR LITERATURE CLASSES: determine if you book is from before 1929. If it is, its in public domain, you can almost certain get a free copy online. If they want a SPECIFIC copy for an essay bundled with book, see below.
Now, run your search by ISBN using the two metasearch sites. Open them in separate tabs.
gettextbooks shows you WITH the shipping, Addall does NOT show you the shipping. keep this in mind when you’re comparing. You’ll see a lot of duplication. GetTextbooks will also show you SOME variants.
Now that you have those open, open two more tabs. Run a second search on same two sites using the author and exact title you picked up from search #1. This will show you all the international editions and weird bundles that don’t exactly match the ISBN of the bookstore
WHAT THE HELL IS AN INTERNATIONAL EDITION: its a paperback version of the US version with an angry notice on the cover saying “NOT FOR SALE OUTSIDE INDONESIA”. Its the same book, but way cheaper. ignore the angry warning, the US Supreme Court has your back. NO, REALLY. Right of first sale, baby! ignore the angry warning and you basically have same book, it just isn’t printed with ink made from student tears and unobtanium.
Now filter results based on whether you need any Extra materials or not.
IF YOU DO NEED THE EXTRA MATERIALS: this is where it gets tricky. an intact bundle is generally the most expensive option or near top end of price curve. If you NEED the other materials, you may be able to get them cheaper in pieces. and you can buy mismatched pieces!
Say for example you need a math textbook, but need the software key for the math problem program. The professor said you can use older book. Buy a math book that one or more editions back and then buy the software key separately from the SOFTWARE manufacturer. You’ll find the software keys on booksites all by themselves, but they’re generally way more expensive than buying the key direct from software manufacturer. and no shipping then!
NOW A WORD ON LITERATURE: sometimes profs want you to get a specific edition of something to read a specific essay in the book. You have about 50/50 odds that the essay is in the front of the book. IF IT IS, you may be able to read the essay on Amazon by going to that books page and clicking on the “look inside”. They generally preview between 10-30 pages of books and that often means its the essay you needed, not the actually BODY of the book. So you can look up the specific copy of Frankenstein on Amazon, read the essay, then download a free different version from Project Gutenberg.
FOR RECENT NONFICTION, make sure you have an up to date library card for your HOME library and the LOCAL city library where your college is. Many have digital loans available, where you can check out the ebook for free and popular nonfiction is frequently available that way.
IF YOU CAN GET YOUR BOOKLIST BEFORE GOING TO SCHOOL: shop for the mundane things locally first. There will be 50 people in CollegeTown looking for that book, you may be the only one in your home town. supply and demand, if you found it in collegetown, it may be 10X price of your local bookstore.
and check you local library as well! You may be able to check out some of those books from your local library and take them to school with you and renew them online one or more times, depending on how in demand they are. There will be NO copies in CollegeTown library because there’s 50 people asking for it. But your HOME town, you may be able to renew it twice since its low demand. Write on your calender when they’re due or need to be renewed. Renew them OR tuck the whole pile into a Priority Mail flat rate box and send them home to your folks. The cost of the priority box to send several library books home is probably way less than what you’d pay for them. (or if its stuff you know you need AFTER a break where you’ll be home, request a hold from school, pick up at home)
ONE LAST WORD BEFORE YOU BUY…
You determined you HAVE to buy a book and you’ve narrowed it down to a few choices of source. Run a search for “coupon + Sitename” what looked like the lowest priced may not if you find a coupon for the 2nd or 3rd lowest priced option. Gettextbook will generate some automatically, but you may be able to find even better ones.
So make yourself some food, get a beverage, put on some tunes and compare prices!
and if you’re reached point of wanting to curl up in a ball and die, you can send us an ask with the ISBN for your book and answers to questions aobe (extra materials, previous edition, etc) and we’ll send you back an note with a link to the cheapest one we can find. I do this for a living, send an ask and I’ll get it done usually within about 12 hours.
WHOOP WHOOP MASSIVE EXCELLENT RESOURCE ADVICE ABOVE!!!!
Also: CHECK YOUR INSTITUTION’S LIBRARY. Often the books will be available for short-term loan, and there may also be copies of older editions that you can borrow and take home. Short-term loan generally will mean a few hours spent in the library, but it generally should be long enough to get the chapter of the week read. If you don’t need to take your books to class, then this is often a very doable solution.
I’ve just seen Sweeney Todd for the first time. I am Team Toby and ever shall remain.